Most pipelines, regardless of what they contain, are designed with a typical life span of 25 years. When they do begin to fail, they do so slowly beginning with leaks at poor construction joints, corrosion points and small structural material cracks, and gradually progress to a catastrophic ending. This disastrous failure can be expensive in terms of both dollars and lives; but planned maintenance can extend the life of almost all types of pipelines almost indefinitely and disastrous scenarios can be avoided.  Pipeline leak detection systems are also beneficial because they can enhance productivity and system reliability thanks to reduced downtime and reduced inspection time.
Fibre-Based leak detection systems for the protection of Oil & Gas pipelines have also been developed. The advantages of fibre are its length of distance that can be covered and that it can be buried as well as installed along the pipeline above-surface.
Non-invasive systems have become the standard for many sewer testing and repair programs because they are capable of locating sewer pipeline leaks and exterior erosion voids in active and inactive refinery systems. These systems characterize anomalous areas by composition, size, depth and plume spread; and provide a system to repair and remediate these subsurface areas with no inconvenience to the facility, its processes or personnel. [3